The military architecture of ancient Chorasmia
The military architecture of ancient Chorasmia


Preface (S. W. Helms)7
Introduction21
1. Archaeological investigations of defensive works of ancient Chorasmia
1.1. Questions regarding the history of ancient Chorasmia35
1.2. Archaeological investigations into defensive works of ancient Chorasmia45
Gorodische Bol'shoi K'irk-k'iz-kala46
Gorodische Eres-kala (also Ar'is-kala)47
Gorodische Kazakl'i-yatkan49
Gorodische Devkesken52
Gorodische Ayaz-kala III53
Tash-k'irman-tepe56
Bol'shoi Aibuiir-kala57
Ichan-kala (Khiva)58
Bol'shoi Gul'dursun59
l'ii K'irk-k'iz-kala59
Kurgashin-kala60
Devkesken wall62
Toprak-kala (Khivinskaya)64
Toprak-kala (Shavatskaya)64
Kz'il-kala65
Angka-kala66
Gyaur-kala (Sultan-uiz-dag)67
Akchungul'68
Duman-kala68
Kuz'i-kr'ilgan-kala68
2. Stages in the development of fortifications of ancient Chorasmia
2.1. Fortifications of the Archaic period, 6th to 5th centuries B.C.71
2.2. Fortifications of the 'Kangiui' period, 4th century B.C. to the beginning of the 1st century A.D.73
2.3. Fortifications of the 'Kushan' period, 1st to 4th centuries A.D.75
2.4. Typological classification of defensive works of ancient Chorasmia76
2.5. Principles of fortification elements77
Selection of site77
Ditch78
Proteichismata80
Structitre of walls82
Pilasters85
Towers86
Loopholes90
Gates93
Ramps95
Citadels96
Construction techniques97
2.6. Armament and warfare98
Bow and arrow100
Sling stones101
Slings and stone-catapults102
3. The place of ancient Chorasmian fortifications in relation to the fortifications of Central Asia105
Conclusion123
Appendix (A.U. . Betts): Chorasmians, Central Asian nomads and Chorasmian military architecture131
Bibliography
Abbreviations159
Bibliography161
Illustrations
List of illustrations183
Figures191